Explore the Family Name O'Neil

The meaning of O'Neil

Irish (Mayo, Tipperary): variant of O’Neill. Some characteristic forenames: Irish Brendan, Conn, Donal, Liam, Siobhan, Aileen, Eamon, Michael Patrick, Seamus, Sean Patrick, William Sean.

Dictionary of American Family Names, 2nd edition, © Oxford University Press, 2022.

How common is the last name O'Neil in the United States?

According to the Decennial U.S. Census, the surname O'Neil has maintained a consistent popularity between 2000 and 2010 with no recorded change. In both years, the rank was 1145, with a count of 28,020 individuals bearing the name. The proportion per 100,000 people remained steady at 10.39. This illustrates that the usage of the O'Neil surname has remained stable over this decade.

Proportion per 100k10.3910.390%

Race and Ethnicity of people with the last name O'Neil

When examining the ethnic identity associated with the surname O'Neil, data from the Decennial U.S. Census indicates no notable changes from 2000 to 2010. The majority of people with this surname, about 89.68%, identify as White. About 6.34% identify as Black, while 1.87% identify as Hispanic. Those identifying as Asian/Pacific Islander or American Indian and Alaskan Native are each under 0.5%. Approximately 1.27% of people with the O'Neil surname identify with two or more ethnicities. These percentages held constant over the examined period, indicating a largely unchanged distribution of ethnic identities amongst those bearing the O'Neil surname.

Two or More Races1.27%1.27%0%
Asian/Pacific Islander0.47%0.47%0%
American Indian and Alaskan Native0.37%0.37%0%

O'Neil ancestry composition

23andMe computes an ancestry breakdown for each customer. People may have ancestry from just one population or they may have ancestry from several populations. The most commonly-observed ancestry found in people with the surname O'Neil is British & Irish, which comprises 56.7% of all ancestry found in people with the surname. The next two most common ancestries are French & German (16.8%) and Italian (5.4%). Additional ancestries include Eastern European, Scandinavian, Spanish & Portuguese, Ashkenazi Jewish, and Indigenous American.

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British & Irish56.7%
French & German16.8%

Possible origins of the surname O'Neil

Your DNA provides clues about where your recent ancestors may have lived. Having many distant relatives in the same location suggests that you may all share common ancestry there. Locations with many distant relatives can also be places where people have migrated recently, such as large cities. If a large number of individuals who share your surname have distant relatives in a specific area, it could indicate a connection between your surname and that location, stemming from either recent ancestral ties or migration.

Based on 23andMe data, people with last name O'Neil have recent ancestry locations in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Ireland.

RECENT ANCESTRY LocationPercentage
Greater London, United Kingdom86.50%
Merseyside, United Kingdom86.50%
Glasgow City, United Kingdom86.20%
Greater Manchester, United Kingdom86.20%
West Midlands, United Kingdom85.70%

What O'Neil haplogroups can tell you

Haplogroups are genetic population groups that share a common ancestor on either your paternal or maternal line. These paternal and maternal haplogroups shed light on your genetic ancestry and help tell the story of your family.

The top paternal haplogroup of people with the surname O'Neil is R-P311, which is predominantly found among people with European ancestry. Haplogroup R-P311 is descended from haplogroup R-M343. Other common haplogroups include R-CTS241 and R-L21, which are predominantly found among people with European and European ancestry. Other surnames with similar common haplogroups are: O'Neill, O'Neal, O'Neil, Griffith, Humphries, Sanderson, Powell, Crosby, Davies.

The most common maternal haplogroups of people with O'Neil surname are: H1, T2b, H. These most commonly trace back to individuals of European ancestry.

o-neilPaternal Haplogroup Origins R-M343

Your maternal lineage may be linked to Marie Antoinette

Because it is so dominant in the general European population, haplogroup H also appears quite frequently in the continent's royal houses. Marie Antoinette, an Austrian Hapsburg who married into the French royal family, inherited the haplogroup from her maternal ancestors. So did Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, whose recorded genealogy traces his female line to Bavaria. Scientists also discovered that famed 16th century astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus traced his maternal lineages to haplogroup H.

Maternal Haplo Image

What do people with the surname O'Neil have in common?

Spoiler alert: it's complicated. People with the same last name are usually no more genetically similar than a randomly sampled group of people from the same population. That said, people with the same surname are more likely to have similar ancestries than randomly sampled individuals. The reason is the tendency of people with similar cultural or geographical backgrounds to preferentially mate with one another. That's why people who share a surname may be more likely to share traits and tendencies in common than people within the general population. Check out the percentages below to see the prevalences of tastes, habits, and traits of people with your surname compared with prevalences among 23andMe users.



Chocolate Ice Cream

Prefers chocolate flavored ice cream over other flavors.

"O'Neil" Surname 41.4%

23andMe Users 41.3%




When sounds made by others, like the sound of chewing or yawning, provoke strong emotional reactions in an individual.

"O'Neil" Surname 26.4%

23andMe Users 27.9%



Sugary Drink

Drinks one or more sugary drinks per day.

"O'Neil" Surname 18.9%

23andMe Users 21.1%




A severe headache characterized by intense pain, sensitivity to light and sound, and often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

"O'Neil" Surname 18.1%

23andMe Users 16.4%

Are health conditions linked to the last name O'Neil?

The short answer is that, if there is an association between surname and health, it's usually more about your ancestry than your name. Individuals with a given surname are no more genetically similar than the general population but often have similar ancestries. The populations of people associated with those shared ancestries often have sets of genetic variations, also known as alleles, in common. Some of those alleles are associated with a greater likelihood of developing certain diseases.

Disease variant frequency by ancestry

Disease allele frequencies in populations associated with the surname O'Neil are shown below. Important Note: not everyone with a disease allele will develop these health condition

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Y402H variant

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible vision loss among older adults. The disease results in damage to the central part of the retina (the macula), impairing vision needed for reading, driving, or even recognizing faces. The 23andMe Health + Ancestry DNA test includes the two most common variants associated with an increased risk of developing the condition: the Y402H variant in the CFH gene and the A69S variant in the ARMS2 gene. Learn more about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

British & Irish 62.1%

23andMe Users 57.2%