Explore the Family Name Long

The meaning of Long

1. English and French: nickname for a tall person, from Old English lang, long, Old French long ‘long, tall’ (equivalent to Latin longus). Compare Dulong and Lelong. 2. Irish (Ulster and Munster): shortened Anglicized form of Gaelic Ó Longáin (see Langan). 3. German: variant of Lang ‘long’ and, in North America, also an altered form (translation into English) of this. 4. Native American (Navajo): translation into English and shortening of a personal name based on (or just composed of) the word nééz ‘tall, long’ (see Nez 1). Compare Tallman. 5. Chinese: Mandarin or Cantonese form of the surname 龍, meaning ‘dragon’ in Chinese: (i) from Long (龍), the name of an official during the reign of the legendary Emperor Shun (c.23rd century bc), in charge of communications between the ordinary people and the emperor. (ii) from the surname Huan Long (豢龍, meaning ‘feeding dragons’). Dong Fu is said to have been endowed with this surname by the legendary Emperor Shun (c.23rd century bc). Liu Lei, who is said to have learned to feed dragons from one of Dong’s descendants, was endowed with the surname Yu Long (御龍, meaning ‘driving dragons’) by one of the kings of the Xia dynasty (2070–1600 BC). (iii) the surname is borne by some families from the Zang Ge ethnic group in ancient China, who lived in present-day Yunan and Guizhou provinces. (iv) the surname is also borne by members of the royal families of the ancient states of Qiemi and Yanqi (Karasahr), located in present-day Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region. 6. Chinese: Mandarin or Cantonese form of the surname 隆, meaning ‘prosperous, thriving’ or ‘grand, magnificent’ in Chinese: (i) from the placename Long (隆), the name of a fief (located in present-day Shandong province) in the state of Lu during the Spring and Autumn period (770–476 BC). (ii) the surname is borne by some families from the Huns during the early Western Han dynasty (202 BC–25 AD). 7. Chinese: Cantonese form of the surname 郎, see Lang 3. 8. Chinese: variant Romanization of the surname 農, see Nong. 9. Cambodian: written ឡុង, of Chinese origin, meaning ‘dragon’ (see 5 above). 10. Vietnamese: from the Chinese surname 龍, see 5 above.

Dictionary of American Family Names, 2nd edition, © Oxford University Press, 2022.

How common is the last name Long in the United States?

Based on the Decennial U.S. Census data, the popularity of the surname "Long" saw a significant shift between 2000 and 2010. In 2000, Long ranked as the 86th most popular surname in the United States but dropped to the 97th position by 2010, representing a decrease of 12.79%. However, the actual count of individuals bearing the surname slightly increased from 223,494 in 2000 to 229,374 in 2010, growing by 2.63%. The proportion of the surname per 100,000 people also experienced a decline from 82.85 in 2000 to 77.76 in 2010, marking a reduction of 6.14%.

Proportion per 100k82.8577.76-6.14%

Race and Ethnicity of people with the last name Long

When considering ethnic identity, the Decennial U.S. Census data indicates varying shifts for the surname "Long" between 2000 and 2010. The percentage of those identifying as Asian/Pacific Islander increased notably by 39.33%, while those identifying with two or more races also saw an increase of 36.81%. The largest ethnic group, Whites, represented 82.35% of the Long surnames in 2000, but this number decreased slightly to 79.88% in 2010. Hispanic representation among Long surnames increased by 52.38%, though they still made up only 2.24% of the total in 2010. Black representation rose modestly by 2.98%, accounting for 12.10% of the Long surnames in 2010. Finally, those identifying as American Indian and Alaskan Native increased their representation by 9.09%, although their total proportion remained relatively low at 1.32% in 2010.

Asian/Pacific Islander1.78%2.48%39.33%
Two or More Races1.44%1.97%36.81%
American Indian and Alaskan Native1.21%1.32%9.09%

Long ancestry composition

23andMe computes an ancestry breakdown for each customer. People may have ancestry from just one population or they may have ancestry from several populations. The most commonly-observed ancestry found in people with the surname Long is British & Irish, which comprises 51.1% of all ancestry found in people with the surname. The next two most common ancestries are French & German (26.0%) and Eastern European (3.7%). Additional ancestries include Scandinavian, Italian, Spanish & Portuguese, Chinese, and Nigerian.

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British & Irish51.1%
French & German26.0%
Eastern European3.7%

Possible origins of the surname Long

Your DNA provides clues about where your recent ancestors may have lived. Having many distant relatives in the same location suggests that you may all share common ancestry there. Locations with many distant relatives can also be places where people have migrated recently, such as large cities. If a large number of individuals who share your surname have distant relatives in a specific area, it could indicate a connection between your surname and that location, stemming from either recent ancestral ties or migration.

Based on 23andMe data, people with last name Long have recent ancestry locations in United Kingdom and Ireland.

RECENT ANCESTRY LocationPercentage
Greater London, United Kingdom84.50%
Merseyside, United Kingdom84.30%
Greater Manchester, United Kingdom84.30%
Glasgow City, United Kingdom84.10%
West Midlands, United Kingdom84.00%

What Long haplogroups can tell you

Haplogroups are genetic population groups that share a common ancestor on either your paternal or maternal line. These paternal and maternal haplogroups shed light on your genetic ancestry and help tell the story of your family.

The top paternal haplogroup of people with the surname Long is R-P311, which is predominantly found among people with European ancestry. Haplogroup R-P311 is descended from haplogroup R-M343. Other common haplogroups include R-L48 and R-CTS241, which are predominantly found among people with European and European ancestry. Other surnames with similar common haplogroups are: Smith, Hill, Young, Stephens, White, Wilson, Taylor, Thompson, Walker, Brown.

The most common maternal haplogroups of people with Long surname are: H1, T2b, H. These most commonly trace back to individuals of European ancestry.

longPaternal Haplogroup Origins R-M343

Your maternal lineage may be linked to Marie Antoinette

Because it is so dominant in the general European population, haplogroup H also appears quite frequently in the continent's royal houses. Marie Antoinette, an Austrian Hapsburg who married into the French royal family, inherited the haplogroup from her maternal ancestors. So did Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, whose recorded genealogy traces his female line to Bavaria. Scientists also discovered that famed 16th century astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus traced his maternal lineages to haplogroup H.

Maternal Haplo Image

What do people with the surname Long have in common?

Spoiler alert: it's complicated. People with the same last name are usually no more genetically similar than a randomly sampled group of people from the same population. That said, people with the same surname are more likely to have similar ancestries than randomly sampled individuals. The reason is the tendency of people with similar cultural or geographical backgrounds to preferentially mate with one another. That's why people who share a surname may be more likely to share traits and tendencies in common than people within the general population. Check out the percentages below to see the prevalences of tastes, habits, and traits of people with your surname compared with prevalences among 23andMe users.



Chocolate Ice Cream

Prefers chocolate flavored ice cream over other flavors.

"Long" Surname 43.5%

23andMe Users 41.3%




When sounds made by others, like the sound of chewing or yawning, provoke strong emotional reactions in an individual.

"Long" Surname 26.2%

23andMe Users 27.9%



Sugary Drink

Drinks one or more sugary drinks per day.

"Long" Surname 24.9%

23andMe Users 21.1%




A severe headache characterized by intense pain, sensitivity to light and sound, and often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

"Long" Surname 18.4%

23andMe Users 16.4%

Are health conditions linked to the last name Long?

The short answer is that, if there is an association between surname and health, it's usually more about your ancestry than your name. Individuals with a given surname are no more genetically similar than the general population but often have similar ancestries. The populations of people associated with those shared ancestries often have sets of genetic variations, also known as alleles, in common. Some of those alleles are associated with a greater likelihood of developing certain diseases.

Disease variant frequency by ancestry

Disease allele frequencies in populations associated with the surname Long are shown below. Important Note: not everyone with a disease allele will develop these health condition

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Y402H variant

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible vision loss among older adults. The disease results in damage to the central part of the retina (the macula), impairing vision needed for reading, driving, or even recognizing faces. The 23andMe Health + Ancestry DNA test includes the two most common variants associated with an increased risk of developing the condition: the Y402H variant in the CFH gene and the A69S variant in the ARMS2 gene. Learn more about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

British & Irish 62.1%

23andMe Users 57.2%