Explore the Family Name Baker

The meaning of Baker

1. English: occupational name, from Middle English bakere, Old English bæcere, a derivative of bacan ‘to bake’. It may have been used for someone whose special task in the kitchen of a great house or castle was the baking of bread, but since most humbler households did their own baking in the Middle Ages, it may also have referred to the owner of a communal oven used by the whole village. The right to be in charge of this and exact money or loaves in return for its use was in many parts of the country a hereditary feudal privilege. Compare Miller. Less often the surname may have been acquired by someone noted for baking particularly fine bread or by a baker of pottery or bricks. 2. Americanized form (translation into English) of surnames meaning ‘baker’, for example Dutch Bakker, German Becker and Beck, French Boulanger and Bélanger (see Belanger), Czech Pekař, Slovak Pekár, and Croatian Pekar. History: Baker was established as an early immigrant surname in Puritan New England. Among others, two men called Remember Baker (father and son) lived at Woodbury, CT, in the early 17th century, and an Alexander Baker arrived in Boston, MA, in 1635. — In North America, this surname is also borne by the descendants of Claude Lefebvre dit Boulanger from France (see Boulanger).

Dictionary of American Family Names, 2nd edition, © Oxford University Press, 2022.

How common is the last name Baker in the United States?

According to data from the Decennial U.S. Census, the popularity of the surname Baker has seen a slight dip between 2000 and 2010. The rank of this surname dropped from 38 in 2000 to 44 in 2010, reflecting a decrease of approximately 15.79%. Despite this drop in ranking, the count of individuals bearing this surname actually increased by 1.51% during the same period, growing from 413,351 to 419,586. However, when considering the proportion per 100k people, the popularity decreased by around 7.17%, moving from 153.23 in 2000 to 142.24 in 2010.

Proportion per 100k153.23142.24-7.17%

Race and Ethnicity of people with the last name Baker

In terms of ethnic identity associated with the surname Baker, the Decennial U.S. Census data shows shifts across different groups between 2000 and 2010. While the majority of those with this surname identified as White (82.08% in 2000 and 79.83% in 2010), there was a noticeable increase in the percentage of Bakers who identified as Hispanic, rising from 1.47% to 2.28%. Other groups such as Asian/Pacific Islander and Black also saw increases, with the former group going from 0.45% to 0.56% and the latter from 13.63% to 14.44%. The proportion of individuals identifying as two or more races grew as well, from 1.54% to 2.02%, while the American Indian and Alaskan Native group experienced a slight increase, from 0.83% to 0.87%.

Two or More Races1.54%2.02%31.17%
American Indian and Alaskan Native0.83%0.87%4.82%
Asian/Pacific Islander0.45%0.56%24.44%

Baker ancestry composition

23andMe computes an ancestry breakdown for each customer. People may have ancestry from just one population or they may have ancestry from several populations. The most commonly-observed ancestry found in people with the surname Baker is British & Irish, which comprises 51.5% of all ancestry found in people with the surname. The next two most common ancestries are French & German (25.1%) and Eastern European (4.0%). Additional ancestries include Scandinavian, Italian, Ashkenazi Jewish, Nigerian, and Spanish & Portuguese.

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British & Irish51.5%
French & German25.1%
Eastern European4.0%

Possible origins of the surname Baker

Your DNA provides clues about where your recent ancestors may have lived. Having many distant relatives in the same location suggests that you may all share common ancestry there. Locations with many distant relatives can also be places where people have migrated recently, such as large cities. If a large number of individuals who share your surname have distant relatives in a specific area, it could indicate a connection between your surname and that location, stemming from either recent ancestral ties or migration.

Based on 23andMe data, people with last name Baker have recent ancestry locations in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Ireland.

RECENT ANCESTRY LocationPercentage
Greater London, United Kingdom86.10%
Greater Manchester, United Kingdom86.00%
Merseyside, United Kingdom85.90%
Glasgow City, United Kingdom85.80%
West Midlands, United Kingdom85.50%

What Baker haplogroups can tell you

Haplogroups are genetic population groups that share a common ancestor on either your paternal or maternal line. These paternal and maternal haplogroups shed light on your genetic ancestry and help tell the story of your family.

The top paternal haplogroup of people with the surname Baker is R-P311, which is predominantly found among people with European ancestry. Haplogroup R-P311 is descended from haplogroup R-M343. Other common haplogroups include I-Z58 and R-CTS241, which are predominantly found among people with European and European ancestry. Other surnames with similar common haplogroups are: Brown, Smith, White, Green, Hill, Miller, Wright, Clark, Wilson, Taylor.

The most common maternal haplogroups of people with Baker surname are: H1, T2b, H. These most commonly trace back to individuals of European ancestry.

bakerPaternal Haplogroup Origins R-M343

Your maternal lineage may be linked to Marie Antoinette

Because it is so dominant in the general European population, haplogroup H also appears quite frequently in the continent's royal houses. Marie Antoinette, an Austrian Hapsburg who married into the French royal family, inherited the haplogroup from her maternal ancestors. So did Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, whose recorded genealogy traces his female line to Bavaria. Scientists also discovered that famed 16th century astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus traced his maternal lineages to haplogroup H.

Maternal Haplo Image

What do people with the surname Baker have in common?

Spoiler alert: it's complicated. People with the same last name are usually no more genetically similar than a randomly sampled group of people from the same population. That said, people with the same surname are more likely to have similar ancestries than randomly sampled individuals. The reason is the tendency of people with similar cultural or geographical backgrounds to preferentially mate with one another. That's why people who share a surname may be more likely to share traits and tendencies in common than people within the general population. Check out the percentages below to see the prevalences of tastes, habits, and traits of people with your surname compared with prevalences among 23andMe users.



Chocolate Ice Cream

Prefers chocolate flavored ice cream over other flavors.

"Baker" Surname 40.8%

23andMe Users 41.3%




When sounds made by others, like the sound of chewing or yawning, provoke strong emotional reactions in an individual.

"Baker" Surname 26.0%

23andMe Users 27.9%



Sugary Drink

Drinks one or more sugary drinks per day.

"Baker" Surname 23.1%

23andMe Users 21.1%




A severe headache characterized by intense pain, sensitivity to light and sound, and often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

"Baker" Surname 18.1%

23andMe Users 16.4%

Are health conditions linked to the last name Baker?

The short answer is that, if there is an association between surname and health, it's usually more about your ancestry than your name. Individuals with a given surname are no more genetically similar than the general population but often have similar ancestries. The populations of people associated with those shared ancestries often have sets of genetic variations, also known as alleles, in common. Some of those alleles are associated with a greater likelihood of developing certain diseases.

Disease variant frequency by ancestry

Disease allele frequencies in populations associated with the surname Baker are shown below. Important Note: not everyone with a disease allele will develop these health condition

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Y402H variant

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible vision loss among older adults. The disease results in damage to the central part of the retina (the macula), impairing vision needed for reading, driving, or even recognizing faces. The 23andMe Health + Ancestry DNA test includes the two most common variants associated with an increased risk of developing the condition: the Y402H variant in the CFH gene and the A69S variant in the ARMS2 gene. Learn more about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

British & Irish 62.1%

23andMe Users 57.2%